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Classical albedo features on Mars

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Title: Classical albedo features on Mars  
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Subject: Tithonium Chasma, List of plains on Mars, List of catenae on Mars, Martian surface, Anseris Mons
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Classical albedo features on Mars

True color

Mars, as seen through a small telescope in 2003, showing the patterns of brightness and color known as albedo features.

The classical albedo features of Mars are the light and dark features that can be seen on the planet Mars through an Earth-based telescope. Before the age of space probes, several astronomers created maps of Mars on which they gave names to the features they could see. The most popular system of nomenclature was devised by Giovanni Schiaparelli, who used names from classical antiquity. Today, the improved understanding of Mars enabled by space probes has rendered many of the classical names obsolete for the purposes of cartography; however, some of the old names are still used to describe geographical features on the planet.


Richard A. Proctor's map of Mars, which names albedo features after astronomers

Early telescopic astronomers, observing Mars from a great distance through primitive instruments (though they were advanced for their day), were limited to studying albedo contrasts on the surface of the planet. These albedo contrasts rarely correspond to topographic features and in many cases obscure them. The origins of the albedo contrasts were a mystery. The lighter patches at the poles were correctly believed to be a frozen substance, either water or carbon dioxide, but the nature of the dark patches seen against the general reddish tint of Mars was uncertain for centuries. When Giovanni Schiaparelli began observing Mars in 1877, he believed that the darker features were seas, lakes, and swamps and named them in Latin accordingly (mare, lacus, palus, etc.). Within a few decades, however, most astronomers agreed that Mars lacks large bodies of surface water. The dark features were then thought by some to be indications of Martian vegetation, since they changed shape and intensity over the course of the Martian year. They are now known to be areas where the wind has swept away the surface dust, leaving a darker, rockier surface; their borders change in response to windstorms on the Martian surface that pick up the dust, widening or narrowing the features.

Nathaniel Green's Mars map, which uses many of Proctor's names

The first astronomer to give names to Martian albedo features was Richard A. Proctor, who created a map in 1867, based in part on the observations of William Rutter Dawes, in which several features were given the names of astronomers who had been involved in mapping Mars; in some cases, the same names were used for multiple features. He was followed by Giovanni Schiaparelli, whose observations differed from Proctor's, and who used this difference to justify drawing up an entirely new scheme of nomenclature in Latin, drawn from the myths and history of classical antiquity with a mixture of other sources. Proctor's names competed with the Schiaparellian names for several decades, and were used in notable early maps drawn by Camille Flammarion in 1876 and Nathaniel Green in 1877. The Proctorian names are now, however, regarded as totally obsolete. In 1958, the International Astronomical Union created a list of officially recognized Martian albedo features, including many, but not all of Schiaparelli's names.[1]

Early map by Giovanni Schiaparelli

The advent of space probes has revolutionized the scientific understanding of Mars, and some of the classical albedo features have become obsolete as they do not correspond clearly with the detailed images provided by spacecraft. However, many of the names used for topographic features on Mars are still based on the classical nomenclature of the feature's location; for instance, the albedo feature 'Ascraeus Lacus' provides the basis of the name of the volcano Ascraeus Mons.

In addition, since most Earth-based amateur telescopes are not powerful enough to resolve the topographic surface features of Mars, amateur astronomers still use many of the old feature-names to orient and record their observations.

Common feature names

Classical albedo features on Mars, whose names date back to Schiaparelli (1888 map above) share some boundaries with more recent satellite observations.[2]

Several Latin words involved here are common nouns. These are generally, but not always, second in the name, but are usually ignored in alphabetizing below:

  • Campi (ˈkæmpaɪ) - fields
  • Cherso (ˈkɛrsoʊ) - peninsula
  • Cornu (ˈkɒrnjuː) - horn, peninsula
  • Depressio (dɨˈprɛʃioʊ) - lowland
  • Fastigium (fæsˈtɪdʒiəm) - summit
  • Fons (ˈfɒnz) – fountain
  • Fretum (ˈfriːtəm) – strait
  • Insula (ˈɪnsjʊlə) – island
  • Lacus (ˈleɪkəs) - lake
  • Lucus (ˈljuːkəs) - grove
  • Mare (ˈmɑriː, ˈmɛəriː) – sea
  • Nix (ˈnɪks) – snow
  • Palus (ˈpeɪləs) - marsh
  • Pons (ˈpɒnz) – bridge
  • Promontorium (ˌprɒmənˈtɔəriəm) – cape
  • Regio (ˈriːdʒioʊ) - region
  • Silva (ˈsɪlvə) - wood
  • Sinus (ˈsaɪnəs) – bay

List of albedo features

Not listed here are the "canals" also observed and named by Schiaparelli, for which see the article Martian canals.


Name Meaning Modern name(s)
Abalos ˈæbəlɒs A no-longer existent island in the North Sea, east of Heligoland Abalos Colles, Abalos Mensa, Abalos Scopuli, Abalos Undae
Achæorum Portus ˌækiːˈɔərəm ˈpɔrtəs "Harbor of the Achaeans" Obsolete
Acherusia Palus ˌækɨˈruːʒiə ˈpeɪləs "Marsh of Acherusia", named after the legendary swamps in Greek mythology Obsolete
Achillis Pons əˈkɪlɨs ˈpɒnz "Bridge of Achilles" Obsolete
Mare Acidalium ˈmɛəriː ˌæsɨˈdeɪliəm "Sea of Acidalia", named for the fountain Acidalia where the Graces bathed Acidalia Colles, Acidalia Mensa, Acidalia Planitia
Æolis ˈiːəlɨs a modification of Aeolia, the name of the floating western island of Aiolos, the ruler of the winds Aeolis Mensae, Aeolis Planum
Aëria eɪˈɪəriə From a poetic name for Egypt Aeria, IAU recognized albedo feature
Ætheria ɨˈθɪəriə – the land of the living, as referred to in Virgil's Aeneid Aetheria, IAU recognized albedo feature
Æthiopis ɨˈθaɪəpɨs Land of the Ethiopians Aethiopis, IAU recognized albedo feature
Aganippe Fons ˌæɡəˈnɪpiː ˈfɒnz "Aganippe's Fountain", legendary home of a Greek naiad Aganippe Fossa
Alcyonia ˌælsiːˈoʊniə Land of kingfishers. Obsolete
Amazonis əˈmæzənɨs "Land of the Amazon", legendary warrior women Amazonis Mensa, Amazonis Planitia, Amazonis Sulci
Amenthes əˈmɛnθiːz Alternate name for Duat, the Egyptian land of the dead Amenthes Cavi, Amenthes Fossae, Amenthes Planum, Amenthes Rupes
Ammonium əˈmoʊniəm Ancient name for the Siwa Oasis Obsolete
Mare Amphitrites ˈmɛəriː ˌæmfɨˈtraɪtiːz "Sea of Amphitrite", a Greek sea-goddess Amphitrites Patera
Lucus Angitiæ ˈljuːkəs ænˈdʒɪʃɪiː "Grove of Angitia", named after the snake goddess Obsolete
Depressiones Aoniæ dɨˌprɛʃiːˈoʊniːz eɪˈoʊniːi "Lowlands of the Muses", who came from Helicon in Aonia Obsolete
Aonius Sinus eɪˈoʊniəs ˈsaɪnəs "Bay of the Muses" Aonia Planum, Aonia Terra
Aponi Fons ˈæpənaɪ ˈfɒnz Roman name for the Bagni d'Abano, warm-water baths near Padua Obsolete
Aquæ Apollinares ˈeɪkwiː əˌpɒlɨˈnɛəriːz "Apollo's Waters"; Roman name for the Bagni di Stigliano baths in Canale Monterano, Tuscany Obsolete
Aquæ Calidæ ˈeɪkwiː ˈkælɨdiː "Hot spring" Obsolete
Aquarii Depressio əˈkwɛəri.aɪ dɨˈprɛʃi.oʊ "Lowland of Aquarius" Obsolete
Arabia əˈreɪbiə Arabian peninsula Arabia Terra
Arachoti Fons ˌærəˈkoʊtaɪ ˈfɒnz "Fountain of Arachotus", a river in Afghanistan Obsolete
Aram ˈɛərəm Aram, Biblical land of the Aramaeans Aram Chaos
Arcadia ɑrˈkeɪdiə From Arcadia, a region of the central Peloponnesus Arcadia Dorsa, Arcadia Chaos
Arduenna ˌɑrdjuːˈɛnə Latin names for the Ardennes forests Obsolete
Arethusa Fons ˌærɨˈθjuːzə ˈfɒnz "Arethusa's Fountain", after the Greek nymph Obsolete
Ariadnes Depressio ˌæriˈædniːz dɨˈprɛʃioʊ "Lowland of Ariadne", a Greek heroine Ariadnes Colles
Argyre I ˈɑrdʒɨriː ˈpraɪmə "First Silver Land", a mythical island in Greek mythology Argyre Cavi, Argyre Planitia, Argyre Rupes
Argyre II ˈɑrdʒɨriː sɨˈkʌndə "Second Silver Land" (see above) Obsolete
Argyroporos ˌɑrdʒɨˈrɒpərɒs "Silver Strait" Obsolete
Aromatum Promontorium əˈrɒmətəm ˌprɒmənˈtɔəriəm "Cape of Fragrant Spices" Aromatum Chaos
Arsia Silva ˈɑrʃiə ˈsɪlvə Arsia Silva, forest northwest of Rome where the Tarquinii were defeated Arsia Chasmata, Arsia Mons, Arsia Sulci
Arsinoës Depressio ɑrˈsɪnoʊiːz dɨˈprɛʃioʊ Lowland of Arsinoë, the name of various Greek and Egyptian figures Arsinoes Chaos
Artynia Fons ɑrˈtɪniə fɒnz "Artynia's Fountain", referring to Lake Artynia in Asia Minor Artynia Catena
Aryn Promontorium ˈɛərɨn ˌprɒmənˈtɔəriəm "Cape of Aryn" Obsolete
Fastigium Aryn fæsˈtɪdʒiəm ˈɛərɨn "Summit of Aryn" Obsolete
Ascræus Lacus æsˈkriːəs ˈleɪkəs "Ascraeus Lake", a poetic paraphase of "heliconian" or "rural" Ascraeus Chasmata, Ascraeus Mons, Ascraeus Sulci
Astræ Lacus ˈæstriː ˈleɪkəs "Lake of the Astra", Greek star-gods Obsolete
Atalantes Depressio ætˈlæntiːz dɨˈprɛʃioʊ Lowland of Atalanta, Greek heroine Obsolete
Nix Atlantica ˈnɪks ætˈlæntɨkə "Snows of Atlas", a Titan in Greek mythology Obsolete
Atlantidum Sinus ætˈlæntɨdəm ˈsaɪnəs "Bay of the Atlantises" (just south of Atlantis I and II, see below) Obsolete
Atlantis I ætˈlæntɨs ˈpraɪmə "First Atlantis", mythical drowned land Atlantis Chaos
Atlantis II ætˈlæntɨs sɨˈkʌndə "Second Atlantis" (see above) Atlantis Chaos
Augila ˈɔːdʒɨlə Awjila, a city in Cyrenaica Obsolete
Aurea Cherso ˈɔriə ˈkɛrsoʊ "Golden Peninsula", ancient name for the Malay Peninsula Obsolete
Aureum Cornu ˈɔriəm ˈkɔrnjuː "Golden Horn", inlet dividing Constantinople Aureum Chaos
Auroræ Sinus ɒˈrɔəriː ˈsaɪnəs "Bay of the Dawn" Aurorae Planum, Aurorae Chaos
Ausonia ɒˈzoʊniə From a poetic name for Italy Ausonia Cavus, Ausonia Mensa, Ausonia Montes
Mare Australe ˈmɛəriː ɒsˈtreɪliː "Southern Sea" Chasma Australe, Australe Lingula, Australe Mensa, Australe Montes, Planum Australe, Australe Scopuli, Australe Sulci


Name Meaning
Baltia ˈbælʃiə From a name for the regions near the Baltic Sea Baltia, IAU recognized albedo feature
Bandusiæ Fons bænˈdjuːʒɪiː ˈfɒnz "Fountain of Bandusia", title of a poem by Horace Obsolete
Bathys Portus ˈbeɪθɨs ˈpɔrtəs "Deep Harbor", the port of Aulis in Boeotia Bathys Planum, changed to Icaria Planum
Benacus Lacus bɨˈneɪkəs ˈleɪkəs "Lake Benacus" (Lago di Garda in northern Italy) Obsolete
Biblis Fons ˈbɪblɨs ˈfɒnz "Biblis Fountain", a Carian well near Miletus Biblis Patera, Biblis Tholus
Bosporium Promontorium bɒsˈpɔəriəm ˌprɒmənˈtɔəriəm "Cape of the Bosphorus"
Bosporus/Bosphorus Gemmatus ˈbɒspərəs / ˈbɒsfərəs dʒɨˈmeɪtəs "Bejewelled Bosphorus" Bosporos Planum, Bosporus Regio, Bosporos Rupes
Brangæna brænˈdʒiːnə Obsolete
Castalia Fons kæsˈteɪliə fɒnz
Cebrenia sɨˈbriːniə
Cecropia sɨˈkroʊpiə "Land of Cecrops"
Ceraunius sɨˈrɔːniəs
Chalce ˈkælsiː
Charitum Promontorium ˈkærɨtəm ˌprɒmənˈtɔəriəm "Cape of the Graces"
Chironis Fretum kaɪˈroʊnɨs ˈfriːtəm "Strait of Chiron"
Mare Chronium ˈmɛəriː ˈkroʊniəm
Chryse ˈkraɪsiː Chryse was an island rich in gold in the Far East of Erythraeum
Chrysokeras krɨˈsɒkɨrəs The Golden Horn
Cimmeria Insula sɨˈmɪəriə ˈɪnsjʊlə "Cimmerian Island"
Mare Cimmerium ˈmɛəriː sɨˈmɪəriəm "Cimmerian Sea", named after an ancient Thracian seafaring people
Circaeum Promontorium sərˈsiːəm ˌprɒmənˈtɔəriəm "Cape of Circe"
Clepsydra Fons klɛpˈsaɪdrə ˈfɒnz "Water-clock fountain", a well in the Athenian acropolis.
Coracis Portus ˈkɒrəsɨs ˈpɔrtəs "Haven of Corax"
Cyane Fons ˈsaɪəniː ˈfɒnz "Cyane fountain", a spring in Sicily from which the Cyane river sprang, named for a nymph.
Cydonia saɪˈdoʊniə poetic name for Crete
Cynia Lacus
Danaïdum Depressio dəˈneɪədəm dɨˈprɛʃioʊ "Lowland of the daughters of Danaüs"
Daphne ˈdæfniː From Daphne ("bay laurel"), a nymph pursued by Apollo.
Deucalionis Regio ˌdjʊkeɪliːˈoʊnɨs ˈriːdʒioʊ "Region of Deucalion"
Dia ˈdaɪə An island north of Crete
Diacria daɪˈeɪkriə A region of Euboea
Dioscuria ˌdaɪəsˈkjʊəriə "Land of the Dioscuri"
Eden ˈiːdən From Eden, the biblical paradise
Edom ˈiːdəm From Edom, an ancient kingdom in modern Jordan
Edom Promontorium ˈidəm ˌprɒmənˈtɔəriəm "Cape of Edom"
Electris ɨˈlɛktrɨs The principal island of the "Electrides", islands said to produce amber.
Elysium ɨˈlɪʒiəm From Elysium, the Greek land of dead heroes
Eridania ˌɛrɨˈdeɪniə Land of the River Eridanus
Mare Erythræum ˈmɛəriː ˌɛrɨˈθriːəm "Red Sea"


Name Meaning
Famæ Depressio ˈfeɪmiː dɨˈprɛʃioʊ "Lowland of Fame"
Ferentinæ Lucus ˌfɛrɨnˈtaɪniː ˈljuːkəs "Grove of Ferentina"
Lucus Feronia "Grove of Wild Beasts"
Flevo Lacus ˈfliːvoʊ ˈleɪkəs
Gallinaria Silva ˌɡælɨˈnɛəriə ˈsɪlvə
Mare Hadriaticum ˈmɛəriː ˌheɪdriːˈætɨkəm "Adriatic Sea" Aka Hadriaticum Mare
Hammonis Cornu həˈmoʊnɨs ˈkɔrnjuː "Horn of Ammon"
Hellas ˈhɛləs "Greece"
Heræum Promontorium hɨˈriːəm ˌprɒmənˈtɔəriəm "Cape of Hera"
Hercynia Silva hɜrˈsɪniə ˈsɪlvə Hercynian Forest
Herculis Columnæ ˈhɜrkjʊlɨs kɒˈlʌmni "Pillars of Hercules"
Herculis Pons ˈhɜrkjʊlɨs ˈpɒnz "Bridge of Hercules"
Hesperia hɛsˈpɪəriə "Land of Dawn"
Hesperidum Lacus hɛsˈpɛrɨdəm ˈleɪkəs "Lake of the Hesperides
Hibe ˈhaɪbiː
Hippocrene Fons ˌhɪpəˈkriːniː ˈfɒnz "Fountain of Hippocrene", near Mount Helicon
Hipponitis Palus
Horarum Promontorium hɒˈrɛərəm ˌprɒmənˈtɔəriəm "Cape of the Hours"
Hypelaus ˌhɪpɨˈliːəs A fountain in Ephesus.
Iapygia ˌaɪəˈpɪdʒiə Salento in Italy Aka Japygia
Icaria aɪˈkɛəriə
Mare Icarium ˈmɛəriː aɪˈkɛəriəm
Ierne aɪ.ˈɜrniː A name for Ireland
Isidis Regio ˈɪsɨdɨs ˈriːdʒioʊ "Region of Isis"
Ismenius Lacus ɨzˈmiːniəs ˈleɪkəs aka Lacus Ismenius
Jani Fretum ˈdʒeɪnaɪ ˈfriːtəm "Strait of Janus"
Juventæ Fons dʒʊˈvɛntiː ˈfɒnz "Fountain of Youth" aka Fons Juventæ
Labeatis Lacus leɪbiːˈeɪtɨs ˈleɪkəs Lake of the Labeates, a people of Illyria
Lausonius Lacus
Lemuria lɨˈmjʊəriə From Lemuria, a fictional sunken land in the Pacific or Indian Ocean
Lerne ˈlɜrniː
Libya ˈlɪbiə "Libya"
Lucrinus Lacus The Lucrine Lake in Roman Italy
Lunæ Lacus ˈljuːniː ˈleɪkəs "Lake of the Moon" aka Lacus Lunæ


Name Meaning Modern name(s)
Mæisia Silva
Mareotis ˌmæriːˈoʊtɨs "Land about Mareota", in Lower Egypt.
Margaritifer Sinus ˌmarɡəˈrɪtɨfər ˈsaɪnəs "Pearlbearing Bay"
Lucus Maricæ ˈljuːkəs məˈraɪsiː "Grove of Maríca", a nymph of Latium.
Memnonia mɛmˈnoʊniə "Land of Memnon"
Meroë Insula ˈmɛroʊ.iː ˈɪnsjʊlə "Island of Meroe"
Messeis Fons
Lacus Mœris ˈleɪkəs ˈmɪərɨs Lake Moeris, a lake in the Egyptian Fayum
Mons Argenteus ˈmɒnz ɑrˈdʒɛntiəs "Silver mountain"
Neith Regio ˈniːθ ˈriːdʒioʊ "Region of Neith"
Nepheles Depressio ˈnɛfɨliːz dɨˈprɛʃioʊ "Lowland of cloud"
Nereïdum Promontorium nɨˈriː.ɨdəm ˌprɒmənˈtɔəriəm "Cape of the Nereids
Nerigos ˈnɛrɨɡɒs Name of a fictional country, supposedly in or near Scandinavia
Nessonis Lacus
Niliacus Lacus nɨˈlaɪəkəs ˈleɪkəs "Lake of the Nile"
Nitriæ ˈnaɪtrɪ.iː
Nix Atlantica ˈnɪks ætˈlæntɨkə "Atlantic Snow"
Nix Olympica ˈnɪks ɒˈlɪmpɨkə "Olympian Snow" Olympus Mons
Noachis ˈnoʊ.əkɨs "Land of Noah" Noachis quadrangle
Nodus Gordii ˈnoʊdəs ˈɡɔrdiaɪ "Gordian Knot"
Noti Sinus ˈnoʊtaɪ ˈsaɪnəs "Bay of Notus"
Novissima Thyle nɵˈvɪsɨmə ˈθaɪli "Newest Thule"
Nuba Lacus ˈnjuːbə ˈleɪkəs


Name Meaning
Mare Oceanidum ˈmɛəriː ˌoʊʃiːˈænɨdəm "Sea of the Oceanids"
Octantis Depressio ɒkˈtæntɨs dɨˈprɛʃioʊ "Lowland of Octans"
Œnotria ɨˈnoʊtriə
Ogygis Regio ˈɒdʒɨdʒɨs ˈriːdʒioʊ "Region of Ogyges"
Ophir ˈoʊfər From Ophir, a biblical land of gold
Ortygia ɔrˈtɪdʒiə
Oxia Palus ˈɒkʃiə ˈpeɪləs
Palicorum Lacus ˌpælɨˈkɔərəm ˈleɪkəs
Palinuri Fretum ˌpælɨˈnjʊəraɪ ˈfriːtəm "Strait of Palinurus"
Palinuri Sinus ˌpælɨˈnjʊraɪ ˈsaɪnəs "Bay of Palinurus"
Pallas Lacus ˌpæləs ˈleɪkəs
Panchaia pæŋˈkeɪə From the name of an island supposed to be in South Arabia
Phaëthontis ˌfeɪ.ɨˈθɒntɨs "Land of Phaethon"
Phlegra ˈfliːɡrə From a district in Macedonia.
Campi Phlegræi ˈkæmpaɪ flɨˈɡriːaɪ "Fields of Phlegra"
Phœnicis Lacus fɨˈnaɪsɨs ˈleɪkəs "Lake of the Phoenix" aka Lacus Phœnicis
Phrixi Regio ˈfrɪksaɪ ˈriːdʒioʊ "Region of Phrixus"
Piscis Depressio ˈpaɪsɨs dɨˈprɛʃioʊ "Depression of the Fish"
Depressio Pontica dɨˈprɛʃi.oʊ ˈpɒntɨkə "Lowland of Pontus"
Promethei Sinus prɵˈmiːθi.aɪ ˈsaɪnəs "Bay of Prometheus"
Propontis prɵˈpɒntɨs From an old name for the Sea of Marmara
Protei Regio ˈproʊti.aɪ ˈriːdʒi.oʊ "Region of Proteus"
Pyrrhæ Regio ˈpɪri ˈriːdʒioʊ "Region of Pyrrha"
Sinus Sabæus ˈsaɪnəs səˈbiːəs "Bay of Sheba" Aka Sabaeus Sinus
Scandia ˈskændiə From a name for Skåne or Scandinavia
Scheria Insula ˈskɪəriə ˈɪnsjʊlə "Scheria Island"
Semiramidis Lacus ˌsɛmɨˈræmɨdɨs ˈleɪkəs "Lake of Semiramis"
Simoëntis Sinus ˌsɪmoʊˈɛntɨs ˈsaɪnəs "Bay of Simois"
Sirbonis Lacus
Mare Sirenum ˈmɛəriː saɪˈriːnəm "Sea of Sirens"
Socratis Promontorium ˈsɒkrətɨs ˌprɒmənˈtɔəriəm "Cape of Socrates"
Solis Fons ˈsoʊlɨs ˈfɒnz "Fountain of the Sun"
Solis Lacus ˈsoʊlɨs ˈleɪkəs "Lake of the Sun"
Syrtis Major ˈsɜrtɨs ˈmeɪdʒər a Libyan gulf, now Gulf of Sidra
Syrtis Minor ˈsɜrtɨs ˈmaɪnər aka Syrtis Parva


Name Meaning
Tempe ˈtɛmpiː
Tharsis ˈθɑrsɨs "Tarshish" (Tartessos)
Thaumasia θɔːˈmeɪʒə "Land of Wonders"
Thyle I ˈθaɪliː ˈpraɪmə "First Thule"
Thyle II ˈθaɪliː sɨˈkʌndə "Second Thule"
Thyles Collis ˈθaɪliːz ˈkɒlɨs "Hill of Thule"
Thyles Mons ˈθaɪliːz ˈmɒnz "Mountain of Thule"
Thymiamata ˌθɪmiˈæmətə "Incenses"
Tiphys Fretum ˈtaɪfɨs ˈfriːtəm
Titanum Sinus taɪˈteɪnəm ˈsaɪnəs "Bay of the Titans"
Tithonius Lacus tɨˈθoʊniəs ˈleɪkəs
Trivii Fons ˈtrɪvi.aɪ ˈfɒnz "Fountain of the Crossroads" (east of Trivium Charontis)
Trivium Charontis ˈtrɪviəm kəˈrɒntɨs "Crossroads of Charon"
Mare Tyrrhenum ˈmɛəriː tɨˈriːnəm "Tyrrhenian Sea"
Uchronia jʊˈkroʊniə "Nowhen"
Ulyxis Fretum jʊˈlɪksɨs ˈfriːtəm "Strait of Ulysses"
Utopia jʊˈtoʊpiə "Nowhere, Utopia"
Vulcani Pelagus vʌlˈkeɪnaɪ ˈpɛləɡəs "Sea of Vulcan"
Xanthi Sinus ˈzænθaɪ ˈsaɪnəs "Bay of Xanthus"
Xisuthri Regio zɨˈsuːθraɪ ˈriːdʒi.oʊ "Region of Xisuthrus"
Yaonis Regio ˈjeɪ.ənɨs ˈriːdʒi.oʊ "Region of Emperor Yao"
Zephyria zɨˈfɪriə "Land of the West Wind (Zephyr)"

See also


  1. ^ United States Geological Survey Astrogeology Program, "Mars Nomenclature: Albedo Feature", Gazeteer of Planetary Nomenclature.
  2. ^ "Surface Features on Mars: Ground-Based Albedo and Radar Compared With Mariner 9 Topography" 79 (26).  


  • The Origins of Martian Nomenclature, T. L. MacDonald, 1971.
  • The Planet Mars: A History of Observation and Discovery, William Sheehan.
  • USGS Astrologeology Program, Martian Nomenclature
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