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Equivalent Sensor Radiance Generation and Remote Sensing from Mode...

By: A. M. Da Silva; S. Platnick; P. M. Norris; G. Wind

Description: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Rd. Greenbelt, Maryland, 20771, USA. In this paper we describe a general procedure for calculating equivalent sensor radiances from variables output from a global atmospheric forecast model. In order to take proper account of the discrepancies between model resolution and sensor footprint the algorithm takes explicit account of the model subgrid variability, in particular its description of the prob...

Ackerman, A., Strabala, K., Menzel, P., Frey, R., Moeller, C., Gumley, L., Baum, B., Seemann, S. W., and Zhang, H.: Discriminating clear-sky from cloud with MODIS Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (MOD35), ATBD Reference Number: ATBD-MOD-06, available at: http://modis-atmos.gsfc.nasa.gov/reference_atbd.html (last access: 23 July 2013), 2006.; Barnes, W. L., Pagano, T. S., and Salomonson, V. V.: Prelaunch...

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Bayesian Calibration of the Thermosphere-ionosphere Electrodynamic...

By: A. Maute; J. Rougier; S. Guillas; C. D. Linkletter; A. D. Richmond

Description: Department of Statistical Science & Aon Benfield UCL Hazard Research Centre, University College London, UK. In this paper, we demonstrate a procedure for calibrating a complex computer simulation model having uncertain inputs and internal parameters, with application to the NCAR Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM). We compare simulated magnetic perturbations with observations at two ground locations for various com...

Higdon, D., Gattiker, J., Williams, B., and Rightley, M.: Computer model calibration using high-dimensional output, J. Am. Stat. Assoc., 103, 570–583, 2008.; Bayarri, M. J., Berger, J. O., Cafeo, J., Garcia-Donato, G., Liu, F., Palomo, J., Parthasarathy, R. J., Paulo, R., Sacks, J., and Walsh, D.: Computer model validation with functional output, Ann. Statist., 35, 1874–1906, 2007.; Fang, T., Richmond, A., Liu, J., Maute, A., Lin, C., Chen, C., and Harper, B.: Model simu...

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Evaluation of the Global Aerosol Microphysical Modele2-tomas Model...

By: D. T. Shindell; P. J. Adams; Y. H. Lee

Description: Earth and Ocean Sciences, Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA. The TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS) microphysics model has been integrated into the state-of-the-art general circulation model, GISS ModelE2. This paper provides a detailed description of the ModelE2-TOMAS model and evaluates the model against various observations including aerosol precursor gas concentrations, aerosol mass and number concentration...

Baltensperger, U.: Aerosol climatology at the high Alpine site Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 19707–19715, 1997.; Abdou, W. A., Diner, D. J., Martonchik, J. V., Bruegge, C. J., Kahn, R. A., Gaitley, B. J., Crean, K. A., Remer, L. A., and Holben, B.: Comparison of coincident Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer aerosol optical depths over land and ocean scenes containing Aerosol Robotic Network sites, J....

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Aerosol Specification in Single-column Community Atmosphere Model ...

By: B. Lebassi-habtezion; P. M. Caldwell

Description: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551, USA. Single-column model (SCM) capability is an important tool for general circulation model development. In this study, the SCM mode of version 5 of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) is shown to handle aerosol initialization and advection improperly, resulting in aerosol, cloud-droplet, and ice crystal concentrations which are typically much lower than observed or simulated ...

Abdul-Razzak, H. and Ghan, S.: A parameterization of aerosol activation: 2. Multiple aerosol types, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 6837–6844, 2000.; Ackerman, A. S., van Zanten, M. C., Stevens, B., Savic-Jovcic, V., Bretherton, C. S., Chlond, A., Golaz, J.-G., Jiang, H., Khairoutdinov, M., Krueger, S. K., Lewellen, D. C., Lock, A., Moeng, C.-H., Nakamura, K., Petters, M. D., Snider, J. R., Weinbrecht, S., and Zulauf, M.: Large-eddy simulations of a drizzling, stratocumulus-toppe...

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Toposub: a Tool for Efficient Large Area Numerical Modelling in Co...

By: S. Gruber; J. Fiddes

Description: Glaciology, Geomorphodynamics & Geochronology, Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Switzerland. Mountain regions are highly sensitive to global climate change. However, large scale assessments of mountain environments remain problematic due to the high resolution required of model grids to capture strong lateral variability. To alleviate this, tools are required to bridge the scale gap between gridded climate datasets (climate models and re-an...

Beven, K.: How far can we go in distributed hydrological modelling?, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 5, 1–12, doi:10.5194/hess-5-1-2001, 2001.; Boeckli, L., Brenning, A., Gruber, S., and Noetzli, J.: A statistical approach to modelling permafrost distribution in the European Alps or similar mountain ranges, The Cryosphere, 6, 125–140, doi:10.5194/tc-6-125-2012, 2012.; Burrou...

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Evaluating Caco3-cycle Modules in Coupled Global Biogeochemical Oc...

By: A. Oschlies; P. Kähler; O. Duteil; J. Segschneider; W. Koeve

Description: Biogeochemical Modelling, GEOMAR Helmholtz-Zentrum für Ozeanforschung, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany. The marine CaCO3 cycle is an important component of the oceanic carbon system and directly affects the cycling of natural and the uptake of anthropogenic carbon. In numerical models of the marine carbon cycle, the CaCO3 cycle component is often evaluated against the observed distribution of alkalinity. Alkal...

Anderson, L. A. and Sarmiento, J. L.: Redfield ratios of remineralization determined by nutrient data analysis, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 8, 65–80, 1994.; Antonov, J. I., Seidov, D., Boyer, T. P., Locarnini, R. A., Mishonov, A. V., Garcia, H. E., Baranova, O. K., Zweng, M. M., and Johnson, D. R.: World Ocean Atlas 2009, vol. 2: Salinity, NOAA Atlas NESDIS 69, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 184 pp., 2010.; Broecker, W. S.: NO, a conservative water-mass trace...

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An Approach to Computing Direction Relations Between Separated Obj...

By: J. Li; Z. Wang; H. Yan

Description: Department of Geography & Environmental Management, Faculty of Environment, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada. Direction relations between object groups play an important role in qualitative spatial reasoning, spatial computation and spatial recognition. However, none of existing models can be used to compute direction relations between object groups. To fill this gap, an approach to computing direction relations between separ...

Goyal, R. K.: Similarity Assessment for Cardinal Directions Between Extended Spatial Objects, PHD thesis, The University of Maine, USA, 167 pp., 2000.; Egenhofer, M. and Shariff, R.: Metric details for natural-language spatial relations, ACM T. Inform. Syst., 16, 295–321, 1998.; Frank, A. U.: Qualitative spatial reasoning about distances and directions in geographic space, J. Visual Lang. Comput., 3, 343–371, 1992.; Frank, A. U.: Qualitative spatial reasoning: cardinal d...

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Description and Evaluation of Tropospheric Chemistry and Aerosols ...

By: D. E. Kinnison; X. Liu; L. K. Emmons; F. Moore; F. Vitt; T. Ryerson; R. Spackman; J. W. Elkins; S. Tilmes; S. Ghan; S. Arnold; M. Deeter; P.-l. Ma; C. Bardeen; J.-f. Lamarque

Description: National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, USA. The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM), version 5, is now coupled to extensive tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry, called CAM5-chem, and is available in addition to CAM4-chem in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) version 1.2. Both configurations are well suited as tools for atmospheric-chemistry modeling studies in the troposphere and lower stratosphere, whether with internally ...

Bardeen, C. G., Gettelman, A., Jensen, E. J., Heymsfield, A., Conley, A. J., Delanoë, J., Deng, M., and Toon, O. B.: Improved cirrus simulations in a general circulation model using CARMA sectional microphysics, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 118, 11679–11697, doi:10.1002/2013JD020193, 2013.; Deeter, M. N., Martínez-Alonso, S., Edwards, D. P., Emmons, L. K., Gille, J. C., Worden, H. M., Pittman, J. V., Daube, B. C., and Wofsy,...

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A Fast Stratospheric Chemistry Solver: the E4Chem Submodel for the...

By: B. Steil; P. Jöckel; H. Tost; R. Sander; A. J. G. Baumgaertner

Description: Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, 55020 Mainz, Germany. The atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy (EMAC) and the atmospheric chemistry box model CAABA are extended by a computationally very efficient submodel for atmospheric chemistry, E4CHEM. It focuses on stratospheric chemistry but also includes background tropospheric chemistry. It is based on the chemistry of MAECHAM4-CHEM and is intended to serve as a simple and fast alter...

Scientific {A}ssessment of {O}zone {D}epletion: Tech. rep., World Meteorological Organization, 2006.; Austin, J., Shindell, D., Beagley, S. R., Brühl, C., Dameris, M., Manzini, E., Nagashima, T., Newman, P., Pawson, S., Pitari, G., Rozanov, E., Schnadt, C., and Shepherd, T. G.: Uncertainties and assessments of chemistry-climate models of the stratosphere, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 1–27, 2003.; Austin, J., Tourpali, K., Rozanov, E., Akiyoshi, H., Bekki, S., Bodeker, G., Br{ü...

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The Finite Element Sea Ice-ocean Model (Fesom) V.1.4: Formulation ...

By: R. Timmermann; X. Wang; D. Sidorenko; T. Jung; C. Wekerle; Q. Wang; S. Danilov; J. Schröter

Description: Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany. The Finite Element Sea Ice-Ocean Model (FESOM) is the first global ocean general circulation model based on unstructured-mesh methods that has been developed for the purpose of climate research. The advantage of unstructured-mesh models is their flexible multi-resolution modelling functionality. In this study, an overview of the main features of FESOM will be given; based...

Abernathey, R., Marshall, J., and Ferreira, D.: The dependence of Southern Ocean meridional overturning on wind stress, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 41, 2261–2278, 2011.; Adcroft, A., Hill, C., and Marshall, J.: Representation of topography by shaved cells in a height coordinate ocean model, Mon. Weather Rev., 125, 2293–2315, 1997.; Alford, M. H., MacKinnon, J. A., Zhao, Z., Pinkel, R., Klymak, J., and Peacock, T.: Internal waves across the Pacific, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L2460...

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Test of Validity of a Dynamic Soil Carbon Model Using Data from Le...

By: R. Mäkipää; J. Liski; M. Tuomi; M. Moudachirou; G. H. S. Guendehou; B. Sinsin

Description: Centre Béninois de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique, 03 BP 1665 Cotonou, Bénin. We evaluated the applicability of the dynamic soil carbon model Yasso07 in tropical conditions in West Africa by simulating the litter decomposition process using as required input into the model litter mass, litter quality, temperature and precipitation collected during a litterbag experiment. The experiment was conducted over a six-month period on leaf litter of fiv...

Aerts, R.: Climate, leaf litter chemistry and leaf litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems: a triangular relationship, Oikos, 79, 439–449, 1997.; Akoègninou, A. : Contribution à l'étude botanique des \^{i}lots de forêts denses humides semi-décidues en République Populaire du Bénin, Thèse de doctorat, Université de Bordeaux III, 1984.; Barbhuiya, A. R., Arunachalam, A., Nath, P. C., Khan, M. L., and Arunachalam. K: Leaf litter decomposition of dominant tree species...

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Description and Implementation of a Mixed Layer Model (Mxl, V1.0) ...

By: R. H. H. Janssen; A. Pozzer

Description: Atmospheric Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany. We present a new submodel for the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy): the MiXed Layer (MXL) model for the diurnal dynamics of the convective boundary layer, including explicit representations of entrainment and surface fluxes. This submodel is embedded in a new MESSy base model (VERTICO), which represents a single atmospheric column. With the implementation of MXL in...

Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J., van den Dries, K., and Pino, D.: On inferring isoprene emission surface flux from atmospheric boundary layer concentration measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 3629–3640, doi:10.5194/acp-9-3629-2009, 2009.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J., Patton, E. G., Karl, T., Van den Dries, K., Barth, M. C., and Orlando, J. J.: The role of boundary layer dynamics on the diurnal evolution of isoprene and t...

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Bayesian Calibration of the Thermosphere-ionosphere Electrodynamic...

By: A. Maute; A. D. Richmond; J. Rougier; S. Guillas; C. D. Linkletter

Description: Department of Statistical Science & Aon Benfield UCL Hazard Research Centre, University College London, London, UK. In this paper, we demonstrate a procedure for calibrating a complex computer simulation model having uncertain inputs and internal parameters, with application to the NCAR Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM). We compare simulated magnetic perturbations with observations at two ground locations for var...

Bayarri, M. J., Berger, J. O., Cafeo, J., Garcia-Donato, G., Liu, F., Palomo, J., Parthasarathy, R. J., Paulo, R., Sacks, J., and Walsh, D.: Computer model validation with functional output, Ann. Stat., 35, 1874–1906, 2007.; Fang, T., Richmond, A., Liu, J., Maute, A., Lin, C., Chen, C., and Harper, B.: Model simulation of the equatorial electrojet in the Peruvian and Philippine sectors, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phy., 70, 2203–2211, 2008.; Fesen, C. G., Crowley, G., Roble, R....

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Implementation and Evaluation of Online Gas-phase Chemistry Within...

By: A. S. Zakey; A. B. Tawfik; F. Stordal; F. Solmon; F. Giorgi; A. Shalaby; S. Sillman; A. L. Steiner; R. A. Zaveri

Description: Earth System Physics Group, International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy. The RegCM-CHEM4 is a new online climate-chemistry model based on the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) regional climate model (RegCM4). Tropospheric gas-phase chemistry is integrated into the climate model using the condensed version of the Carbon Bond Mechanism (CBM-Z; Zaveri and Peters, 1999) with a fast solver based on radical balances. We eval...

Andersson, C. and Engardt, M.: European ozone in a future climate: Important changes in dry deposition and isoprene emissions, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D02303, doi:10.1029/2008JD011690, 2010.; Barth, M. C., Sillman, S., Hudman, R., Jacobson, M. Z., Kim, C.-H., Monod, A., and Liang, J.: Summary of the cloud chemistry modelling intercomparisons: photochemical box model simulation, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4214,

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Gpupom: a Gpu-based Princeton Ocean Model : Volume 7, Issue 6 (17/...

By: X. Huang; Y. Zhang; H. Fu; L.-y. Oey; S. Xu; F. Xu; G. Yang

Description: Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Center for Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, 100084, and Joint Center for Global Change Studies, Beijing, 100875, China. Rapid advances in the performance of the graphics processing unit (GPU) have made the GPU a compelling solution for a series of scientific applications. However, most existing GPU acceleration works for climate models are doing partial code porting for certain ...

Allen, J. and Newberger, P.: Downwelling circulation on the Oregon continental shelf. Part I: response to idealized forcing, Oceanographic Literature Review, 44, 2011–2035, 2.0.CO;2>doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1996)026<2011:DCOTOC>2.0.CO;2, 1997.; Blumberg, A. F. and Mellor, G. L.: Diagnostic and prognostic numerical circulation studies of the South Atlantic Bight, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 88, 4579–4592, 1983...

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Gaseous Chemistry and Aerosol Mechanism Developments for Version 3...

By: J. Allan; J. D. Fast; S. Utembe; S. Archer-nicholls; R. A. Zaveri; G. McFiggans; Ø. Hodnebrog; D. Lowe; H. Denier Van Der Gon

Description: Centre for Atmospheric Sciences, School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK. We have made a number of developments to the Weather, Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem), with the aim of making the model more suitable for prediction of atmospheric composition and of interactions between air quality and weather. We have worked on the European domain, with a particu...

Osthoff, H. D., Pilling, M. J., Ravishankara, A. R., and Brown, S. S.: Temperature dependence of the NO3 absorption cross-section above 298 K and determination of the equilibrium constant for $NO3 + NO2 \leftrightarrow N2O5$ at atmospherically relevant conditions, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 9, 5785–5793, doi:10.1039/b709193a, 2007.; Qian, Y., Gustafson Jr, W. ...

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Upgrading Photolysis in the P-tomcat Ctm: Model Evaluation and Ass...

By: O. Wild; G. D. Carver; K. C. Clemitshaw; J. A. Pyle; A. Voulgarakis; N. H. Savage

Description: Centre for Atmospheric Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. A new version of the p-TOMCAT Chemical Transport Model (CTM) which includes an improved photolysis code, Fast-JX, is validated. Through offline testing we show that Fast-JX captures well the observed J(NO2) and J(O1D) values obtained at Weybourne and during a flight above the Atlantic, though with some overestimation of J(O1D) whe...

Atkinson, R A., Baulch, D L., Cox, R A., Crowley, J N., Hampson Jr, R F., Hynes, R G., Jenkin, M E., Kerr, J A., Rossi, M J., and Troe, J.: Summary of evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry, http://www.iupac-kinetic.ch.cam.ac.uk/, web version, 2005.; Barnard, J C., Chapman, E G., Fast, J D., Schmelzer, J R., Slusser, J R., and Shetter, R E.: An evaluation of the FAST-J photolysis algorithm for predicting nitrogen dioxide photolysis rates under...

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Development of a Parameterization of Black Carbon Aging for Use in...

By: M. Koike; N. Oshima

Description: Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan. A parameterization of black carbon (BC) aging in the atmosphere is developed for use in general circulation models (GCMs) that separately treats size distributions of hydrophobic BC and hydrophilic BC using lognormal modes. The rate of BC aging is expressed as the conversion rate from hydrophobic BC to hydrophilic BC modes (i.e., inverse of the e-folding time of the conversion, 1/ΤBC<...

Bond, T., Habib, G., and Bergstrom, R. W.: Limitations in the enhancement of visible light absorption due to mixing state, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D20211, doi:10.1029/2006JD007315, 2006.; Byun, D. W. and Ching, J. K. S.: Science algorithms of the EPA Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system, US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-99/030, 19...

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Quantifying the Impact of Sub-grid Surface Wind Variability on Sea...

By: H. Wan; S. J. Ghan; Y. Qian; R. C. Easter; K. Zhang; C. Zhao; K. Sakaguchi; X. Liu

Description: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA. This paper evaluates the impact of sub-grid variability of surface wind on sea salt and dust emissions in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). The basic strategy is to calculate emission fluxes multiple times, using different wind speed samples of a Weibull probability distribution derived from model-predicted grid-box mean quantities.

In order to derive the Weibull dist...

Arakawa, A., Jung, J.-H., and Wu, C.-M.: Toward unification of the multiscale modeling of the atmosphere, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 3731–3742, doi:10.5194/acp-11-3731-2011, 2011.; Banta, R. M., Pichugina, Y. L., and Brewer, W. A.: Turbulent velocity-variance profiles in the stable boundary layer generated by a nocturnal low-level jet, J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 2700–2719, doi:10.117...

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Inclusion of Ash and So2 Emissions from Volcanic Eruptions in Wrf-...

By: S. A. McKeen; P. Webley; S. R. Freitas; G. Grell; M. Stuefer; S. Peckham

Description: Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 903 Koyukuk Drive, Fairbanks, AK 99775, USA. We describe a new functionality within the Weather Research and Forecasting model with coupled Chemistry (WRF-Chem) that allows simulating emission, transport, dispersion, transformation and sedimentation of pollutants released during volcanic activities. Emissions from both an explosive eruption case and relatively calm degassing situation are considered ...

Ackermann, I. J., Hass, H., Memmesheimer, M., Ebel, A., Binkowski, F. S., and Shankar, U.: Modal aerosol dynamics model for Europe: Development and first applications, Atmos. Environ., 32, 2981–2999, 1998.; Ahmadov, R., McKeen, S. A., Robinson, A., Bahreini, R., Middlebrook, A., de Gouw, J., Meagher, J., Hsie, E., Edgerton, E., Shaw, S., and Trainer, M.: A volatility basis set model for summertime secondary organic aerosols over the eastern United States in 2006, J. Geop...

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