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Toposub: a Tool for Efficient Large Area Numerical Modelling in Co...

By: S. Gruber; J. Fiddes

Description: Glaciology, Geomorphodynamics & Geochronology, Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Switzerland. Mountain regions are highly sensitive to global climate change. However, large scale assessments of mountain environments remain problematic due to the high resolution required of model grids to capture strong lateral variability. To alleviate this, tools are required to bridge the scale gap between gridded climate datasets (climate models and re-an...

Avissar, R.: A statistical-dynamical approach to parameterize subgrid-scale land-surface heterogeneity in climate models, Surv. Geophys., 12, 155–178, 1991.; Avissar, R. and Pielke, R. A.: A parameterization of heterogenous land surfaces or atmospheric numerical models and its impact on regional meteorology), Mon. Weather Rev., 117, 2113–2136, 1989.; Barnett, T. P., Adam, J. C., and Lettenmaier, D. P.: Potential impacts of a warming climate on water availability in snow-...

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Evaluation of Near Surface Ozone Over Europe from the MacC Reanaly...

By: J. Kapsomenakis; H. Eskes; A. Tsikerdekis; O. Stein; D. Melas; C. S. Zerefos; M. G. Schultz; E. Katragkou; J. Flemming; A. Inness; P. Zanis; V. Huijnen

Description: Department of Meteorology and Climatology, School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece. This work is an extended evaluation of near surface ozone as part of the global reanalysis of atmospheric composition, produced within the European Funded project MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate). It includes an evaluation over the period 2003–2012 and provides an overall assess...

Akritidis, D., Zanis, P., Pytharoulis, I., and Karacostas, Th.: Near-surface ozone trends over Europe in RegCM3/CAMx simulations for the time period 1996–2006, Atmos. Environ., 97, 6–18, 2014.; Baertsch-Ritter, N., Keller, J., Dommen, J., and Prevot, A. S. H.: Effects of various meteorological conditions and spatial emission resolutions on the ozone concentration and ROG/NOx limitation in the Milan area (I), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 423–438, doi:

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A Dynamic Marine Iron Cycle Module Coupled to the University of Vi...

By: A. Oschlies; D. P. Keller; L. Nickelsen

Description: GEOMAR Helmholtz-Zentrum für Ozeanforschung Kiel, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany. Marine biological production and the associated biotic uptake of carbon in many ocean regions depend on the availability of nutrients in the euphotic zone. While large areas are limited by nitrogen and/or phosphorus, the micronutrient iron is considered the main limiting nutrient in the North Pacific, equatorial Pacific and Southern Ocean. Changes in iron availabili...

Arndt, S., Jørgensen, B., LaRowe, D., Middelburg, J., Pancost, R., and Regnier, P.: Quantifying the degradation of organic matter in marine sediments: a review and synthesis, Earth-Sci. Rev., 123, 53–86, 2013.; Arnosti, C., Jørgensen, B., Sagemann, J., and Thamdrup, B.: Temperature dependence of microbial degradation of organic matter in marine sediments: polysaccharide hydrolysis, oxygen consumption, and sulfate reduction, Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 165, 59–70, 1998.; Aumon...

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Evaluation of the Global Aerosol Microphysical Modele2-tomas Model...

By: D. T. Shindell; P. J. Adams; Y. H. Lee

Description: Earth and Ocean Sciences, Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA. The TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS) microphysics model has been integrated into the state-of-the-art general circulation model, GISS ModelE2. This paper provides a detailed description of the ModelE2-TOMAS model and evaluates the model against various observations including aerosol precursor gas concentrations, aerosol mass and number concentration...

Baltensperger, U.: Aerosol climatology at the high Alpine site Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 19707–19715, 1997.; Abdou, W. A., Diner, D. J., Martonchik, J. V., Bruegge, C. J., Kahn, R. A., Gaitley, B. J., Crean, K. A., Remer, L. A., and Holben, B.: Comparison of coincident Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer aerosol optical depths over land and ocean scenes containing Aerosol Robotic Network sites, J....

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Development of a Variational Flux Inversion System (Invicat V1.0) ...

By: F. Chevallier; M. Gloor; M. P. Chipperfield; C. Wilson

Description: School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK. We present a new variational inverse transport model, named INVICAT (v1.0), which is based on the global chemical transport model TOMCAT, and a new corresponding adjoint transport model, ATOMCAT. The adjoint model is constructed through manually derived discrete adjoint algorithms, and includes subroutines governing advection, convection and boundary layer mixing, all of which are linear in the T...

Amsallem, D., Zahr, M., Choi, Y., and Farhat, C.: Design Optimization Using Hyper-Reduced-Order Models, Technical report, Stanford University, 2013.; Andersson, E., Fisher, M., Munro, R., and McNally, A.: Diagnosis of background errors for radiances and other observable quantities in a variational data assimilation scheme, and the explanation of a case of poor convergence, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 126, 1455–1472, 2000.; Arnold, S. R., Chipperfield, M. P., and Blitz, M. A...

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Influence of High-resolution Surface Databases on the Modeling of ...

By: G. C. R. Bodstein; L. C. G. Pimentel; L. M. S. Paiva

Description: Federal Center of Technological Education, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Large-eddy simulations are performed using the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) code at horizontal grid resolutions as fine as 300 m to assess the influence of detailed and updated surface databases on the modeling of local atmospheric circulation systems of urban areas with complex terrain. Applications to air pollution and wind energy are sought. These databases are comp...

Arino, O., Ranera, F., Plummer, S., and Borstlap, G.: GlobCarbon product description, 28 pp., available at: http://dup.esrin.esa.it/files/p43/GLBC_ESA_PDMv4.2.pdf, last access: 21 November 2013, 2008.; Asrar, G., Fuchs, M., Kanemasu, E. T., and Hatfield, J. L.: Estimating absorbed photosynthetic radiation and leaf area index from spectral reflectance in wheat, Agron. J., 76, 300–306, 1984.; Bastin, B. S. ...

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Libcloudph++ 0.2: Single-moment Bulk, Double-moment Bulk, and Part...

By: H. Pawlowska; A. Jaruga; W. W. Grabowski; S. Arabas

Description: Institute of Geophysics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland. This paper introduces a library of algorithms for representing cloud microphysics in numerical models. The library is written in C++, hence the name libcloudph++. In the current release, the library covers three warm-rain schemes: the single- and double-moment bulk schemes, and the particle-based scheme with Monte-Carlo coalescence....

Rogers, J. and Davis, R.: The effects of van der Waals attractions on cloud droplet growth by coalescence, J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 1075–1080, 2.0.CO;2>doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1990)047<1075:TEOVDW>2.0.CO;2, 1990.; Schabel, M. and Watanabe, S.: Boost.Units: Zero-overhead dimensional analysis and unit/quantity manipulation and conversion, in: Boost Library Documentation, available at:

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Lanl* V1.0: a Radiation Belt Drift Shell Model Suitable for Real-t...

By: G. D. Reeves; R. H. W. Friedel; J. Koller

Description: Space Science and Applications, ISR-1, Los Alamos National Lab, USA. We describe here a new method for calculating the magnetic drift invariant, L*, that is used for modeling radiation belt dynamics and for other space weather applications. L* (pronounced L-star) is directly proportional to the integral of the magnetic flux contained within the surface defined by a charged particle moving in the Earth's geomagnetic fi...

Reed, R D. and Marks, R J.: Neural smithing: supervised learning in feedforward artificial neural networks, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1999.; Barron, A.: Approximation Bounds For Superpositions Of A Sigmoidal Function, Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on, 85–85, 1991.; Barron, A.: Universal approximation bounds for superpositions of a sigmoidal function, Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on, 39, 930–945, 1993.; Barron, A R.: Approximation and estimation bo...

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Semi-lagrangian Transport of Oxygen Isotopes in Polythermal Ice Sh...

By: K. Grosfeld; G. Lohmann; T. Goelles

Description: The University Centre in Svalbard (UNIS), Longyearbyen, Norway. Modelling the evolution of the Earth system on long timescales requires the knowledge and understanding of driving mechanisms, such as the hydrological cycle. This is dominant in all components of the Earth's system, such as atmosphere, ocean, land surfaces/vegetation and the cryosphere. Observations and measurements of stable water isotopes in climate archives can help to decipher and...

Arakawa, A.: Computational design for long-term numerical integration of the equations of fluid motion: two-dimensional incompressible flow, Part I, J. Comput. Phys., 135, 103–114, 1997.; Behrens, J.: Adaptive semi-Lagrangian finite element method for the solution of the shallow water equations: implementation and parallelization, Berichte zur Polarforschung, 217, 167, doi:10013/epic.10218, 1996.; Clarke, G. and Marshall, S....

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A Database and Tool for Boundary Conditions for Regional Air Quali...

By: H. O. T. Pye; F. Akhtar; S. L. Napelenok; P. Ciais; W. T. Hutzell; S. Zaehle; B. H. Henderson

Description: Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. Transported air pollutants receive increasing attention as regulations tighten and global concentrations increase. The need to represent international transport in regional air quality assessments requires improved representation of boundary concentrations. Currently available observations are too sparse vertically to provide boundary information, particularly for ozon...

Alexander, B.: Sulfate formation in sea-salt aerosols: constraints from oxygen isotopes, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D10307, doi:10.1029/2004JD005659, 2005.; Appel, K. W. and Gilliland, A. B.: Effects of vertical-layer structure and boundary conditions on CMAQ – v4.5 and v4.6 models, Chapel Hill, NC, available at: http://www.cmascenter.org/conferen...

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Simulating the Mid-pliocene Climate with the Miroc General Circula...

By: W.-l. Chan; R. Ohgaito; A. Abe-ouchi

Description: Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Japan. Recently, PlioMIP (Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project) was established to assess the ability of various climate models to simulate the mid-Pliocene warm period (mPWP), 3.3–3.0 million years ago. We use MIROC4m, a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM), and its atmospheric component alone to simulate the mPWP, utilizing up-to-date data sets designate...

Mellor, G. L. and Yamada, T.: Development of a turbulence closure model for geostrophic fluid problems, Rev. Geophys., 20, 851–875, 1982.; Amante, C. and Eakins, B. W.: ETOP1 1 Arc-Minute Global Relief Model: Procedures, Data Sources and Analysis, National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, US Department of Commerce, Boulder, CO, August 2008.; Arakawa, A. and Schubert, W. H.: Interactions of cumulus cloud ensemble with the large-scale environment, Part I, J. Atmos. S...

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Libmpdata++ 1.0: a Library of Parallel Mpdata Solvers for Systems ...

By: M. Waruszewski; D. Jarecka; H. Pawlowska; A. Jaruga; S. Arabas; P. K. Smolarkiewicz

Description: Institute of Geophysics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland. This paper accompanies the first release of libmpdata++, a C++ library implementing the multi-dimensional positive-definite advection transport algorithm (MPDATA) on regular structured grid. The library offers basic numerical solvers for systems of generalised transport equations. The solvers are forward-in-time, conservative and non-linearly stable. The libmpdata+...

Arabas, S., Jarecka, D., Jaruga, A., and Fijałkowski, M.: Formula translation in Blitz++, NumPy and modern Fortran: a case study of the language choice tradeoffs, Sci. Prog., 22, 201–222, doi:10.3233/SPR-140379, 2014.; Arakawa, A. and Lamb, V. R.: Computational design of the basic dynamical process of the UCLA general circulation model, in: General Circulation Models of the Atmosphere, vol. 17 of Methods in Computational P...

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On the Computation of Planetary Boundary-layer Height Using the Bu...

By: Y. Zhang; D. Li; N. Zhang; Y. Li; Z. Gao; X. Zhao; J. Chen

Description: International Center for Ecology, Meteorology & Environment, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Agricultural Meteorology, College of Applied Meteorology, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China. Experimental data from four field campaigns are used to explore the variability of the bulk Richardson number of the entire planetary boundary layer (PBL), Ribc, which is a key parameter for calculating the PBL heig...

Andre, J. C. and Mahrt, L.: The nocturnal surface inversion and influence of clear-air radiative cooling, J. Atmos. Sci., 39, 864–878, 1982.; Andreas, E. L., Fairall, C. W., Guest, P. S., and Persson, P. O. G.: An overview of the SHEBA atmospheric surface flux program, in: Preprints, Fifth Conference On Polar Meteorology and Oceanography, 10–15 January 1999, Dallas, TX, American Meteorological Society, Boston, 411–416, 1999.; Beyrich, F.: Mixing height estimation from so...

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Predicting the Response of the Amazon Rainforest to Persistent Dro...

By: H. Douville; A. C. L. Da Costa; C. Delire; E. Joetzjer; B. Decharme; L. V. Ferreira; P. Ciais; B. Christoffersen; P. Meir; J. C. Calvet; R. Fisher

Description: CNRM-GAME UMR3589, Groupe d'étude de l'atmosphère météorologique, Toulouse, France. While a majority of global climate models project drier and longer dry seasons over the Amazon under higher CO2 levels, large uncertainties surround the response of vegetation to persistent droughts in both present-day and future climates. We propose a detailed evaluation of the ability of the ISBACC (Interaction Soil–Biosphere–Atmosphere Carbon Cycl...

Allen, C. D., Macalady, A., Chenchouni, H., Bachelet, D., McDowell, N., Vennetier, M., Gonzales, P., Hogg, T., Rigling, A., Breshears, D., Hogg, E. H. (Ted), Gonzalez, P., Fenshaml, R., Zhangm, Z., Castro, J., Demidovao, N., Limp, J. H., Allard, G., Runningr, S. W., Semerci, A., and Cobbt, N.: Climate-induced forest mortality: a global overview of emerging risks, Forest Ecol. Manag., 259, 660–684, doi:10.1016/j.forec...

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Non-orthogonal Version of the Arbitrary Polygonal C-grid and a New...

By: H. Weller

Description: Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, UK. Quasi-uniform grids of the sphere have become popular recently since they avoid parallel scaling bottlenecks associated with the poles of latitude-longitude grids. However quasi-uniform grids of the sphere are often non-orthogonal. A version of the C-grid for arbitrary non-orthogonal grids is presented which gives some of the mimetic properties of the orthogonal C-grid. Exact energy conservation is ...

Weller, H., Weller, H. G., and Fournier, A.: Voronoi, Delaunay and block structured mesh refinement for solution of the shallow water equations on the sphere, Mon. Weather Rev., 137, 4208–4224, 2009.; Weller, H., Thuburn, J., and Cotter, C.: Computational modes and grid imprinting on five quasi-uniform grids of the sphere, Mon. Weather Rev., 140, 2734–2755, 2012.; Cotter, C. and Shipton, J.: Mixed finite elements for numerical weather prediction, J. Comput. Phys., 231, 7...

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Gpupom: a Gpu-based Princeton Ocean Model : Volume 7, Issue 6 (17/...

By: X. Huang; Y. Zhang; H. Fu; L.-y. Oey; S. Xu; F. Xu; G. Yang

Description: Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Center for Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, 100084, and Joint Center for Global Change Studies, Beijing, 100875, China. Rapid advances in the performance of the graphics processing unit (GPU) have made the GPU a compelling solution for a series of scientific applications. However, most existing GPU acceleration works for climate models are doing partial code porting for certain ...

Allen, J. and Newberger, P.: Downwelling circulation on the Oregon continental shelf. Part I: response to idealized forcing, Oceanographic Literature Review, 44, 2011–2035, 2.0.CO;2>doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1996)026<2011:DCOTOC>2.0.CO;2, 1997.; Blumberg, A. F. and Mellor, G. L.: Diagnostic and prognostic numerical circulation studies of the South Atlantic Bight, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 88, 4579–4592, 1983...

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Regional Climate Hindcast Simulations Within Euro-cordex: Evaluati...

By: S. Mayer; D. Jacob; R. Vautard; P. M. M. Soares; M. García-díez; T. Karacostas; I. Pytharoulis; G. Alexandri; S. Sobolowski; A. Gobiet; I. Tegoulias; R. M. Cardoso; K. Goergen; A. Tsikerdekis; P. Zanis; A. Colette; S. Knist; E. Katragkou; J. Fernandez

Description: Department of Meteorology and Climatology, School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece. In the current work we present six hindcast WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting model) simulations for the EURO-CORDEX (European Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment) domain with different configurations in microphysics, convection and radiation for the time period 1990–2008. All regional model simulations are forced ...

Alapaty, K., Herwehe, J. A., Otte, T. L., Nolte, C. G., Bullock, O. R., Mallard, M. S., Kain, J. S., and Dudhia, J.: Introducing subgrid-scale cloud feedbacks to radiation for regional meteorological and climate modeling, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L24808, doi:10.1029/2012GL054031, 2012.; Boberg, F. and Christensen, J. H.: Overestimation of Mediterranean summer temperature projections due to model deficiencies, Nat. Clim. ...

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Implementation of Multirate Time Integration Methods for Air Pollu...

By: M. Arnold; O. Knoth; R. Wolke; M. Schlegel

Description: Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany. Explicit time integration methods are characterised by a small numerical effort per time step. In the application to multiscale problems in atmospheric modelling, this benefit is often more than compensated by stability problems and step size restrictions resulting from stiff chemical reaction terms and from a locally varying Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition f...

Hairer, E., Norsett, S., and Wanner, G.: Solving ordinary differential equations, vol. I, Springer Verlag, 1987.; Hinneburg, D., Renner, E., and Wolke, R.: Formation of secondary inorganic aerosols by power plant emissions exhausted through cooling towers in Saxony, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 16, 25–35, 2009.; Hundsdorfer, W. and Verwer, J.: Numerical solution of time-dependent advection-diffusion reaction equations, Springer Series in Computational Mathematics, Springe...

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The Yale Interactive Terrestrial Biosphere Model: Description, Eva...

By: X. Yue; N. Unger

Description: School of Forestry and Environment Studies, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA. The land biosphere, atmospheric chemistry and climate are inextricably interconnected. We describe the Yale Interactive terrestrial Biosphere (YIBs) model, a land carbon cycle model that has been developed for coupling to the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) ModelE2 global chemistry–climate model. The YIBs model...

Ainsworth, E. A., Yendrek, C. R., Sitch, S., Collins, W. J., and Emberson, L. D.: The effects of tropospheric ozone on net primary productivity and implications for climate change, Annu. Rev. Plant Biol., 63, 637–661, 2012.; Arneth, A., Niinemets, Ü., Pressley, S., Bäck, J., Hari, P., Karl, T., Noe, S., Prentice, I. C., Serça, D., Hickler, T., Wolf, A., and Smith, B.: Process-based estimates of terrestrial ecosystem isoprene emissions: incorporating the effects of a dire...

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Next Generation Framework for Aquatic Modeling of the Earth System...

By: D. Wisser; C. J. Vörösmarty; B. M. Fekete; W. M. Wollheim

Description: CUNY Environmental Cross-roads Initiative, The City College of New York at the City University of New York, 160 Convent Avenue, New York, New York, 10031, USA. Earth System model development is becoming an increasingly complex task. As scientists attempt to represent the physical and bio-geochemical processes and various feedback mechanisms in unprecedented detail, the models themselves are becoming increasingly complex. At the same time, the complexity ...

Hall, J. and O'Connell, E.: Earth systems engineering: turning vision into action, Proceedings of ICE, Civil Engineering 160, 114–122, 2007.; Fekete, B. M., Vörösmarty, C. J., and Lammers, R. B.: Scaling gridded river networks for macro-scale hydrology: Development and analysis and control of error, Water Resour. Res., 37, 1955–1968, 2001.; Horak, J., Orlik, A., and Stromsky, J.: Web services for distributed and interoperable hydro-information systems, Hydrol. Earth Syst...

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